What Is GOES?
GOES is a satellite that carries out a mission of geomagnetic mapping. It is designed to measure the geomagnetic field of the Earth at an orbital distance of about 2,000 km. GOES data are used by the National Weather Service and the Department of Defense. It is also widely used by the research community, commercial weather services, and other organizations for the monitoring and forecasting of weather. This satellite is able to acquire and analyze this data in real time and is used for a wide variety of applications, including short-term forecasting.
The GOES R system is a consolidated architecture that provides data to both distributed direct users and central processing centers. The GOES spacecraft will be fully operational for 14 years and provide critical climatic, solar, and oceanic data. Moreover, the GOES R system will operate with improved latency and coverage. The GOES mission will be used for the monitoring of the Earth’s climate and its natural hazards, as well as for search and rescue operations.
GOES-R and POES are both operational environmental satellites. Both of them specialize in weather forecasting. GOES-R has a geostationary orbit, while POES is in a polar orbit. During their operational life, the two satellites will collect data in the western U.S. on a daily basis. Both GOES-R and POES-R have a long history of providing the world with accurate data on the Earth’s atmosphere.
The GOES satellites continuously monitor Earth’s atmosphere in a geostationary orbit of 35,800 km. Their three-axis body stabilization helps them stay over a single position on the Earth for longer periods of time. The GOES spacecraft is capable of providing real-time coverage of tropical cyclones and severe local storms. The GOES spacecraft has a range of capabilities, including the ability to hear and image clouds and vertical thermal structures.
GOES instruments can detect storms by analyzing cloud formation and movement. They also give detailed weather information in a visual light, which reflects the polar coordinates of a particular area. GOES-R is a more detailed version of GOES-S. In contrast, GOES-R does not have an exact schedule, but it scans the entire Earth during the day. However, compared to its predecessor, the GOES-R mission has a longer life span, which means that it can be used in severe weather situations.
GOES-A was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on September 1, 1975. GOES-B was launched in November of that year, and GOES-T followed two years later. Both GOES satellites were spin stabilized and carried VISSR. The GOES-A was named GOES-I when it reached orbit. It was the first of the three corresponding GOES satellites to be launched. The mission will last for more than 30 years and will be replaced by the upcoming GEOS-T in December 2021.