GOES is a satellite that orbits Earth at certain points. It scans the entire planet from different points, and it has a daily schedule of scanning the earth. GOES East and GOES West have similar maps, but the schedule of scanning is variable and based on different conditions. In severe weather areas, GOES instruments will scan more frequently. But how do these satellites work? This article will explore the basics of GOES and explain the differences between them.
The GOES-T satellite tracks Earth weather by way of a suite of four instruments. These instruments detect solar flares and other types of space weather. Solar flares can disrupt radio communications, satellite electronics, and GPS systems. As the solar maximum approaches in 2025, more solar flares are expected to be generated. GOES-T is operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is the primary instrument of GOES. With three times the spectral channels and five times the scanning speed of the previous GOES, it is more sensitive to the Earth’s atmosphere. EXIS also monitors solar irradiance, which can affect satellites, high altitude aircraft, and power grids. And in the near future, GOES-R will have improved weather data for the U.S. government.
Visible light images from GOES are only available during daylight hours. They are primarily used for atmospheric research and forecasting. This type of data can help meteorologists determine the type of cloud cover in advance of storms. By identifying the clouds and their motion, meteorologists can provide early warnings and forecasts for dangerous weather. It is also possible to detect light-colored sand and snow on Earth. The GOES-R satellite is also useful for monitoring clouds from space.
Another important aspect of GOES-T is its cooling system. Scientists discovered an issue during post-launch testing for its ABI during GOES-17. The loop heat pipe subsystem was not functioning properly. Because of this, ABI detectors cannot maintain their intended temperature under specific orbital conditions, which can result in partial loss of infrared imagery. This means that GOES-T has to relaunch the satellite to make these repairs.
In addition to the GOES-R satellite, EMWIN provides weather information. These satellites are capable of delivering a swarm of weather data. As the mission continues, GOES-R will receive data for the entire earth. This data is then distributed to distributed direct users and to local emergency managers. In addition to this, GOES-R will have a dedicated pathway to NWS for imagery. It is designed to continue to operate during Category 2 hurricanes and other extreme conditions.
GOES-R satellites are a collaborative effort between NASA and NOAA. NOAA manages GOES satellites, while NASA oversees its launch service. The NASA Launch Services Program at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida controls GOES satellite operations. It is currently undergoing environmental testing for its GOES-S satellite. The GOES-S satellite recently completed a reverberant acoustics test, and a sine vibration test, which simulates the noise and vibrations of a launch.