What is a Bicycle?

A bicycle is a two-wheeled human-powered land vehicle that gets people from Point A to Point B. It is also known as a pedal cycle, bike, or simply a bicycle. People ride them for fun, fitness, transport, and many other reasons. Some of them compete in races or other cycling events. Others use them to commute, deliver mail or packages, or get to work. Most modern bicycles are made from steel or aluminum alloys. Some are designed with suspension systems to help riders absorb bumps in the road. They can have one or two brakes, depending on the type of bicycle. Some have a chair-like seat that some riders find more comfortable than a saddle, especially for those with back, neck, or shoulder pain.

The modern bicycle evolved from a wooden device invented in 1817 by German Karl Drais. Drais’s two-wheeled device had a wooden frame, and it was called a draisine or Laufmaschine in Germany. French manufacturers began to make all-metal versions of the bicycle, called velocipedes, in the 1860s. These early all-metal velocipedes were also known as boneshakers because they had solid iron wheels with no tires, which gave them an extremely rough ride, particularly on country roads.

When the safer, more comfortable safety model of the bicycle came onto the market in the 1890s, its popularity contributed to rural modernization. This was because townsfolk used their bicycles to visit and explore the countryside, stimulating infrastructural improvements along popular routes, including cafes, inns, and information points. The more comfortable and safe bicycles also lowered the barriers to women’s participation in leisure activities, such as cycling, while also allowing older men to continue to enjoy their favourite pastime.

By the turn of the twentieth century, cycling had become a cultural icon in the Western world. For cycling associations, which sprung up across Europe and North America, the bicycle was a symbol of personal freedom, but it was also a vehicle of social responsibility and moral discipline. The proper attire, posture and pace of a cyclist was a matter of public concern. Cycling was an art that could be mastered in riding schools, and the correct appearance was a means of distinguishing members of society as reasonable and law-abiding citizens.

In the 21st century, bicycles are used by millions of people for a variety of purposes. In the United States, for example, the number of people riding bikes increased steadily from the 1950s to the 1980s, when it levelled off. In recent years, bicycle sales have risen slightly, but the trend is slowing. This is partly because of the rise of electric bicycles, which use an electric motor to help the rider move the bike forward. The emergence of these vehicles, along with a growing interest in cycling as a sport and form of exercise, has led to an increase in competitions such as the Tour de France and the Olympic Games.

AlphaGo May Spell the End of Human Dominance in Go

The ancient game of go is played with black and white stones on a square wooden board checkered with 19 vertical lines and 19 horizontal ones to form 361 points of intersection. In turn, each player tries to conquer territory by completely enclosing vacant points with boundaries made of their own stones. The first player to do so gains control of the entire board. In the past, mastery of this absorbing and complex game was considered one of the marks of a cultivated scholar or gentleman; today it is considered a valuable intellectual activity for its own sake. However, the rise of AlphaGo may spell the end of human dominance in this noble art.

GOES stands for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, a joint NOAA and NASA program that provides continuous imagery and data on atmospheric conditions and solar activity (space weather) for 40 years. GOES provides critical information to NOAA National Weather Service forecast offices and centers, volcanic ash advisory centers, and other government agencies and the public.

Operational GOES satellites reside in geostationary orbit 35,790 kilometres (22,240 miles) above Earth. Each satellite is equipped with two primary sensors: the Imager and Sounder. The Imager senses infrared radiation and visible light reflected from clouds and the surface of the Earth, while the Sounder detects vertical atmospheric temperature and water vapour structures. Using flexible scan controls, the Imager and Sounder can rapidly zoom in to monitor individual regions of interest and also continuously image the Earth at a high temporal cadence of 10 minutes for global scenes (Earth’s full disk).

Each GOES satellite is controlled from the NOAA Satellite Operations Center in Suitland, Maryland. During severe weather events, the regular schedule of scans can be altered to provide additional observations and more frequent data to meteorologists on the ground.

Both the GOES-East and GOES-West satellites have a wide area of coverage that includes North America, most of the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Each satellite has three-axis body stabilisation, allowing the instruments to “stare” at the Earth, providing real-time observations of the evolution of meteorological phenomena such as severe local storms and tropical cyclones.

There are several types of GOES sensor stations that collect weather data from the atmosphere:

1) Self-timed DCPs. – These have a pre-programmed transmitter and timer that enables the sensor to report at regular intervals to GOES. They are the most common type of GOES sensor station.

2) Random reporting DCPs. – These have the same functionality as 1) but can report at random over a secondary channel when environmental conditions reach a trigger point.

3) Interrogated DCPs. – These send a message through the DCP identification system at the satellite to the satellite control center requesting data from the station. 4) Other sensors. – These sensors gather data for other purposes such as seismic monitoring and ocean tide gauges.

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites are part of the NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) fleet, which consists of 14 satellites with a combined life span of more than 50 years. The next GOES satellite is scheduled to launch in 2024.

Is It Possible to Be Too Nice?

Nice is a word that’s synonymous with kindness, compassion, and empathy. People who are nice are warm and friendly, always ready with a helpful smile. They are a human ray of sunshine. People who are mean, on the other hand, are like dark clouds with sour raindrops – they make you feel sad and depressed. Being nice comes naturally to some people, while others have to work at it. It is possible to be too nice, but that depends on how you define it.

If being nice means you are a people pleaser, then you may be putting the needs of others before your own. This can lead to burnout if you are not careful, so nice people know when to say no and take care of themselves. They practice self-care by eating well, exercising, and getting enough sleep. These things help them to stay happy and healthy so they can continue being nice to others.

Being nice also means being understanding and accepting of others, even if their actions are sometimes inconvenient. This is especially important when dealing with difficult situations that might upset you or your family members. Nice people are able to put their own feelings aside and focus on the emotions of others, helping them to find common ground and build mutually beneficial relationships.

They are generous with their time and resources. Nice people are willing to go the extra mile for those in need, whether it’s assisting a neighbor with a move, lending an emotional support system, or offering up their expertise. They understand that life can throw all sorts of curveballs and are there to lend a helping hand whenever they can.

People who are nice are able to get along with all kinds of people, even if the other person is a bit grumpy or negative. They recognize that a good relationship is worth the effort and will try to turn that grumpy teammate around by being kind and showing sympathy rather than meeting their grumpiness with a matching dose of negativity.

Nice people are able to connect with other people on a deeper level because they show genuine interest in them as individuals. They ask questions about what is going on in the other person’s life and really listen to their answers. They are able to build trusting, respectful relationships with those around them because they truly care about what is best for the people in their lives.

Nice people will never compromise their own values just to fit in with the crowd. They will be honest if they think that the crowd is going down a bad path and will speak up when they feel that it’s not right. They will also stand up for their own beliefs, even if it causes them to be isolated from certain groups of people. This is because they realize that being true to yourself is the only way to be a truly nice person.

What Is Good?

Good is an adjective that means “desirable, worthy, or agreeable,” and is sometimes used as a positive descriptive term for things: “a good person”; “a good teacher”; “a good time”; “good health.” It is also an euphemism for something that is morally correct, as in, “that’s all to the good”; and it can be a part of religious terminology.

Good can also be used as a title for an article, especially on a Wiki, or as the name of a project, as in WikiProject:Good (Wikipedia). It is also a common word to use in everyday speech and writing, as in “that’s all to the good”; “I did good on that test,” or, more formally, “he did well on that test.”

In general, the meaning of good can be considered to cover any action that benefits you while not harming others, such as returning a wallet that was stolen or being honest with people. It can also refer to a particular activity or event that makes you feel good, such as playing sports. However, the robbery of the store was not good for the shop keeper and did not make you feel good.

Many different philosophical theories have been put forward about what is good, ranging from hedonism to perfectionism. Hedonism argues that in order to be happy you must do whatever feels good to you, and perfectionism teaches that the only true path to happiness lies in living up to your full potential as a human being.

During antiquity, the standard answer to the question of what was good was human flourishing, which was defined in various ways such as through the exercise of reason or by the pursuit of virtue. This was because most philosophers believed that rational thought was the distinguishing feature of humans from other animals and that this was what made life worthwhile.

There are a few different types of good, including the goodness of an idea or object, and the goodness of someone or something’s character. This last kind of good is particularly important to religions and other faiths because they teach the importance of ethical behaviors such as generosity, honesty, and fairness. While it is not possible to prove that any one of these ideas of good are right or wrong, they can all be useful in guiding us towards making the best choices for ourselves and for society as a whole.

Bicycle Safety Tips

The bicycle is a simple two-wheeled machine that uses momentum, force, and friction to get riders from Point A to Point B. It’s also a fun, healthy, and effective way to stay in shape or train for a race. However, a bike can be dangerous if the rider doesn’t follow basic safety rules.

Whether you’re riding on the road, on a trail, or in your driveway, following these bicycle tips will keep you safe and help you enjoy your ride.

Obey the Law

Always obey traffic laws, even if they’re not specifically written for bikes. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reminds cyclists that they’re considered vehicles and must abide by the same rules as cars and trucks. This includes wearing a helmet, signaling turns, riding in the same direction as traffic, and using hand signals when passing cars (which is required by law in many states).

Ride Single File

When riding on a street, it’s best to ride single file so that drivers can see you and pass you safely. Staying single file on a sidewalk also prevents pedestrians from being crowded out by a group of cyclists.

Avoid Distractions

It’s important to be fully engaged when riding a bike, so you can respond quickly and safely if something unexpected happens. Avoid chatting with other riders, listening to music, or talking on the phone while you’re on your bike. It only takes a moment to lose your balance and fall off, which could be dangerous or even deadly.

Don’t Wear Headphones

When you’re riding on the street, skip the headphones. Wearing headphones can limit your ability to hear traffic, and it’s a major distraction that can cause you to lose control of your bike. It’s also illegal in most states to ride a bike while wearing headphones.

Keep Your Eyes Up & Ahead of You

While you’re riding, always look ahead for hazards like potholes, cracks, wet leaves, sewer grates, railroad tracks and other dangers that may surprise you. It’s also important to maintain good visibility by wearing brightly colored clothing and using reflective materials for nighttime riding.

Be Prepared for Parked Cars

Drivers can open their doors in front of you when they’re exiting a driveway or alley, so be sure to leave enough space between you and parked cars (3 feet is generally recommended).

Riding a bike might seem like an easy activity, but there’s actually quite a lot that goes into the process. From the physics of the bicycle itself to the positioning of your hands on the handlebars, there are many factors that affect how well you ride. If you’re new to cycling or want to improve your skills, consider taking a cycling class with an experienced instructor. They can teach you basic techniques and help you become a more confident cyclist. You can also find plenty of free resources online to learn more about biking basics.

GOES Satellites Are a Powerful Metaphor for Complex Problems

In the game of go, players place black and white stones on a square wooden board (goban) checkered by 19 vertical lines and 19 horizontal ones. Each stone has a point of intersection with one of the line segments, and the aim is to conquer territory by completely surrounding vacant points with boundaries made up of your own pieces. The number of possible moves is huge, about 3580 (or 10123), a fact that makes go the hardest game in the world to program computers to play. The chess program Deep Blue was considered to have reached master level by some, but it has been surpassed in recent years by programs that use the Monte Carlo tree search technique-born of sin at Los Alamos Laboratory in the 1940s when it was used to design nuclear weapons.

Go is a fascinating game, but it is also a powerful metaphor for a complex problem. It demonstrates how even with very limited resources, the human brain can accomplish amazing things by making clever use of the simple rules and limited knowledge available to it. This is why it is so popular, despite the many controversies that surround the game.

The GOES satellites are part of NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites system and provide continuous imagery and data on atmospheric conditions, solar activity, space weather, and more. NOAA provides the National Weather Service with the data to support weather forecasting and severe storm tracking, and scientific researchers use the data for longer-term weather trends and climate studies.

Located in geostationary orbit 35,790 kilometers (22,240 miles) above the Earth, GOES East and GOES West keep an eye on more than half of the planet, from Africa to New Zealand and from near the Arctic Circle to near Antarctica. The GOES spacecraft have been continuously operational since 1975. NASA builds and launches the satellites, and NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service operates them.

Each GOES satellite is equipped with three instruments that detect visible light, infrared, and radio waves to observe the atmosphere and its clouds. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) takes images of the Earth every six seconds and transmits them to the NOAA GOES Ground System at the Wallops Command and Control Facility in Virginia, where they are processed and distributed.

ABI products are available directly from the satellite, via the Satellite Broadcast Network (SBN), or over the Commercial Off-The-Shelf System (COTS) for CLASS. ABI images and derived products are also distributed over the Internet by NOAA GOES Web Pages.

The GOES Image Browser is a good source of archived imagery and data. NOAA also keeps a complete set of digital GOES data on its GOES Data Book site.

The Different Senses of Nice

Nice is one of those words that has a wide variety of meanings. It’s often used to describe people who are kind, friendly and polite, but it can also be applied to situations and actions that are pleasant or positive. It’s important to understand all of the different senses of nice so that you can use it correctly in your own conversations.

Psychologists describe personality in terms of five broad dimensions, and nice is part of a category called “agreeableness.” People who are agreeable tend to be empathetic and compassionate, which means they care about other people’s feelings and have a tendency to cooperate and help others. They’re also open-minded and trusting, and they’re not easily offended.

People who are nice also have good manners, which means they’re polite and respectful in their interactions with other people. They may hold doors for others, say please and thank you and always remember to smile. They’re also genuine when they compliment other people and are truthful when they offer constructive criticism.

When things don’t go their way, nice people don’t get depressed or discouraged; they just keep working hard. They know that if they keep trying, they’ll eventually hit their goals. Nice people also see failure as a stepping stone to success, rather than something to be embarrassed about.

Nice people are usually happy, because they find joy in making other people feel good. They love to help others and feel a deep connection to their friends. They’re also a great influencers, as they can inspire other people to be more kind and generous. And they have a bigger pool of genuine friends than most other people.

Being a nice person can have its disadvantages, however. If you’re too focused on being nice, it can be easy to let your guard down and allow toxic people to take advantage of you. You may also repress your emotions, which can lead to emotional outbursts later on.

If you want to be a more nice person, start by thinking about how you can improve your relationships and the ways in which you treat other people. Becoming a more empathetic and understanding person will help you connect with other people more effectively, which will make you happier in the long run.

In addition to being a place of beauty and leisure, Nice is home to many famous artists. The city’s clear air and soft light have inspired painters such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse and Niki de Saint Phalle. And the playwright Anton Chekhov wrote Three Sisters while living in Nice for six consecutive winters. Today, Nice is a popular destination for tourists and business travelers who enjoy the sunny Mediterranean climate, beautiful beaches and vibrant culture. The best time to visit is from May to September, when the weather is warm and dry. The mild climate makes it perfect for outdoor activities, including walking along the seafront promenade or taking in the sights at Place Masséna or the Old Town.

The Good (also spelled Good)

The good (also or ) is a concept that has been the subject of extensive philosophical discussion since antiquity. In a broad sense, the good refers to anything that is valued or desirable, and in a narrow sense, it refers to things that are morally right. The good is thus a central concept in ethics, and philosophers have developed a variety of theories about it.

Most of these theories focus on the idea that there is a general concept of the good that humans can share, and that this concept can serve as the basis for basic principles of fairness and right conduct. There is also a wide range of views about how the good should be defined, and a great deal of disagreement over what is good in any given situation.

Many philosophers also divide goods into different categories, such as ends – which are valued for their own sakes – and means, which are valuable because of the ends they promote. Others divide them into intrinsic goods, which have their value in themselves, and extrinsic goods, which get their value from their relation to some other thing. Still others distinguish between subjective or agent-relative goods, which are valuable to people in particular ways, and objective or agent-neutral goods, which are good from everyone’s point of view.

In ordinary language, the word good is often used figuratively, meaning something is pleasing or favorable: A long walk through a crowded city might be good for someone who likes people-watching, but it might not be so good for someone who hates crowds. The word can also be used adjectivally to describe qualities: He did good on the test; She sees well with her new glasses. This use of the word is more common in informal speech, and it is less common in edited writing: In formal or business-related writing, the adverb well is usually used instead.

Some philosophers have tried to develop a theory of the good that would account for all of these various uses. One early attempt was by A. C. Ewing, who argued that the good could be understood as a quality of things that are fitted to be loved. His analysis is now largely obsolete, but it did help to initiate a wider discussion of the nature and value of goodness.

In the Bible, the word good is found in many translations of the Old Testament and the New Testament, including yadabh, “to do thee good” (Genesis 18:12); hesed, “lovingkindness” or “goodwill” (Leviticus 19:8); kosmios, “orderly” or “wholesome” (Romans 16:18), and philagathos, “lovingkindness” or “benevolence” (1 Corinthians 13:7). In the New Testament, it is also translated by eudokia, “good pleasure” (2 Corinthians 1:24); hexaton, “expedient” or “fitting” (Ephesians 1:9); and sumphero, “good will” (“Jeremiah 18:10; Luke 19:10).

The Basics of a Bicycle

A bicycle, also known as a pedal cycle or a push-bike, is a human-powered, two-wheeled vehicle with a frame, a seat, handlebars for steering, and pedals. Bicycles are used for transportation, recreation, and sport. In addition to the basic form, there are many variations, including racing bikes, tandems, and folding bikes. Bicycles are the most efficient means of human-powered transportation in terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, although the use of gearing may reduce this efficiency by 10-15%.

A bike’s basic components consist of a wheel hub, spokes, and metal or rubber tires. A bicycle’s frame provides a structural basis for the rest of the machine, but it is also designed to accommodate various accessories. The most common is a rack, which can be used to carry groceries or equipment, but it is also possible to mount a basket for carrying goods or a child. The frame may be fitted with a hitch for towing a trailer, or an auxiliary saddle or cargo carrier mounted on the crossbar. A bicycle may be equipped with front and rear reflectors, a bell, or a repair kit.

Bicycles are a great way to see local communities, natural wonders, and agricultural and industrial activity. In addition, they can provide a fun and healthy exercise. Many cities and towns offer bike lanes and paths for safe riding, but it is important to always obey traffic signals and be aware of changing conditions in the street. It is also important to wear a helmet. Head injuries account for 22%-47% of all bike-related deaths, and they are the most frequent cause of long-term disabilities in bike accidents.

In the early 1800s, several improvements were made to make the bicycle easier and safer to ride. One was the safety bicycle, which had a front wheel that was the same size as the back wheel to prevent the rider from being thrown off when stopping. Another was the chain drive, which allowed the cranks to be attached to the frame so that the pedals could be powered directly by the feet instead of having to turn the wheels manually.

Using the pedals to generate power is the most efficient way for humans to move a bicycle, and bicycles are very effective vehicles for carrying loads, since 99% of the energy that is delivered to the pedals is transmitted to the wheels. However, the bicycle is a very complex machine and requires maintenance to keep it in good working order. Bicycles should be examined and maintained regularly, especially after each ride. Keeping the bicycle well-lubricated and tightening loose parts can help prolong the life of the bicycle and ensure that it is operating safely. It is recommended that riders use hand signals to communicate their intentions to other cyclists and motorists, and that they ride in the center of the lane so that drivers can see them. In addition, they should make eye contact with drivers when passing to make sure that the driver understands their intention.

GOES Satellites and Their Payloads


In ancient China, go was one of the four arts that any cultivated scholar and gentleman was expected to master. It is considered to be the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence, due to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Nevertheless, in the early 1990s the first programs were able to play at a decent amateur level. This success was attributed in part to the fact that, unlike chess, which has a complex and logical rule set, go has a much simpler one. Players simply place black and white stones on a 19 by 19 grid and try to surround opposite stones in order to capture them. Out of this simplicity emerges tremendous beauty, as demonstrated in the complex battles of Black and White armies that span from corner to center of the board.

The GOES system, which was first launched in 1986, is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s geostationary operational environmental satellite system. It supports National Weather Service (NWS) weather forecasting and severe storm tracking, as well as meteorology research. It is operated by NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service division.

GOES satellites are powered by solar energy, and their instruments measure the near-Earth solar environment using sensors. These measurements are then transmitted to NOAA’s Satellite Operations Control Center in Suitland, Maryland. The primary payload instrument on a GOES satellite is the imager and sounder. The imager is a multichannel sensor that measures infrared and visible radiated solar energy from the Earth’s surface and atmosphere. The sounder provides atmospheric profiles, including vertical temperature and moisture.

Each GOES satellite also carries the Solar X-ray Imager and Space Environment Monitor (SEM). These instruments detect and monitor changes in the solar environment, such as sunspot activity, flares and coronal holes that can disrupt communications and interfere with high altitude airline navigation systems and power grids.

The most recent GOES satellite to launch is the GOES-R Series satellite formerly known as GOES-T, which was launched March 1, 2017. It is currently located at its operating position in geostationary orbit over 137° west. This imager is the most powerful in the GOES fleet, with three times more spectral channels, four times more resolution and five times faster scanning than previous versions of GOES.

GOES-R’s ten-minute full disk imagery is critical to NWS forecast offices and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers, as well as improving aviation safety by providing more frequent images of volcanic ash plumes.

The GOES-R satellites are operated by the NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, and managed by NOAA’s Satellite Operations Control Center in Maryland. GOES-R’s primary payload instrument is the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which views Earth with three times more spectral channels, and four times more spatial resolution, than previous GOES satellites. The Advanced X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS) can also detect solar flares that could interfere with satellites, high altitude aircraft and power grids on Earth.