GOES Satellites Improve Weather Forecasting and Meteorological Research

GOES stands for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The GOES program is an essential part of NOAA’s National Weather Service operations. GOES provides continuous, dependable, high-quality data to meteorologists and the broader weather community. This critical information is used to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking and meteorological research.

The GOES satellites orbit the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, 35,790 kilometres (22,240 miles) above the Earth’s surface. This allows the GOES spacecraft to continuously monitor one area of the Earth from a fixed position. The GOES satellites have multiple instruments that measure the brightness of Earth-emitted and reflected radiation. The resulting measurements provide data on atmospheric temperature, winds, moisture and cloud cover.

The newest GOES satellites (GOES-16 and GOES-17) offer increased image resolution and faster temporal cadence. This improved imaging will enhance the capabilities of NOAA National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices and national centers, especially during hazardous weather events such as severe thunderstorms or wildfires. Additionally, the new ten-minute full-disk imagery will improve the capability to detect volcanic ash clouds and their movements which are important to aviation safety.

For example, during the busiest Atlantic storm season on record in 2020, GOES-16 and 17 provided frequent images of the rapidly developing hurricanes. These detailed images allowed meteorologists to track the development of these severe storms and predict their strength. Additionally, GOES-16 and 17 observed the development of the huge wildfires in Florida and the Pacific Northwest, allowing NOAA meteorologists to provide accurate forecasts for fire behavior.

GOES-17 is also equipped with the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM measures when and where lightning occurs over the United States, which can help improve tornado prediction as well as the detection of storm severity and development.

Another new GOES instrument is the Enhanced Visible and Infrared Sensor, which uses both visible and infrared channels to observe and monitor clouds and precipitation. This sensor can also measure the temperature of the atmosphere and monitor ice crystals, which are essential for severe storm prediction.

In addition, GOES-17 has the Space Environment Services Center’s Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) that provides high-cadence monitoring of large solar features and is able to detect the effects of a flare on satellite communications and navigation systems, electric power networks, the missions of spacecraft astronauts on the International Space Station and high-altitude aviators.

The next satellites in the GOES-R series are expected to be launched in 2022 and 2024. The GOES-R series will continue to use the Advanced Baseline Imager and Sounder for multispectral imaging, as well as the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Sounder (GOES-R Sounder). These sensors will be upgraded with better resolutions and improved speed. The new GOES-R spacecraft will also have the Hazardous Solar Atmospheric Radiation Sensor and the Space Environment Modeling and Prediction System. This will allow the GOES-R series to continuously monitor atmospheric phenomena such as severe local storms and tornadoes. The GOES-R spacecraft also has the capacity to track polar cyclones, allowing forecasters to accurately predict the movement of these dangerous weather phenomena.

The Dangers of Being Too Nice

When most people hear the word nice, they immediately think of a kind, thoughtful person. But nice also means a lot of other things—and sometimes, being too nice can have negative consequences.

Nice means being obliging or yielding to another person. A nice person will do anything to make someone else happy and may not consider their own needs in the process. This type of niceness can lead to unhealthy relationships, which can impact one’s health and wellbeing.

A common use of nice is in phrases such as, “Have a nice evening” and “Did you have a nice holiday?” The word nice can also mean pleasant or agreeable.

It’s important to recognize when you are being too nice because there are many situations where this behavior is not appropriate, especially in a professional setting. According to Tessa West, an assistant professor of psychology at New York University and author of the book, “Niceness and Its Discontents,” if you are too nice in your work, it can be counterproductive.

In the workplace, being too nice can result in a toxic culture that detracts from job satisfaction and productivity. During this time of heightened stress and anxiety, a culture of niceness can be dangerous because it creates an environment where it’s acceptable to be passive aggressive or not stand up for yourself.

This type of behavior is often triggered by a lack of self-esteem or feelings of inadequacy. Those who have a low self-esteem tend to seek validation from others, so they become sycophantic. When they see other people being treated poorly, they don’t speak up out of fear that they might also be subject to the same treatment.

On the other hand, a nice person who has a healthy sense of self-esteem will be willing to stand up for themselves in certain situations. They will be able to differentiate between what they want for themselves and what’s best for their coworkers and friends.

Nice people are often empathetic and respectful, which means they treat others as if they were their own family. They take the time to listen to others and understand that everyone has something unique to contribute. They also show appreciation for others’ accomplishments by giving them a genuine compliment.

In addition to being empathetic, nice people are also resilient. They can bounce back from disappointments and setbacks with positivity by re-framing their negative emotions and looking at the situation objectively.

A nice person will always value other’s feelings over their own and go out of their way to help people feel good about themselves. However, it’s also important to balance niceness with firmness and fairness. For example, if you are tired or not feeling well, it’s not a good idea to try to be overly nice. Instead, take some time to relax and recharge so you can be at your best. Then, you can be a more effective and authentically nice person. For more helpful tips on being a more effective and authentically nice person, check out our guide to navigating difficult conversations.