The Basics of a Bicycle


A bicycle is a two-wheeled device that can be steered by the rider, who stands on the seat and pushes on the pedals. Millions of people worldwide use bicycles for fun, exercise and transportation, as well as for sport (called cycling).

Bicycles have a frame with handlebars for steering, a seat and two pedals. The cranks (arms) are connected to the back wheel by a chain, and when the rider presses on the pedals, the back wheel turns, moving the bicycle forward. The bicycle is a great way to get around, and it is also a work of mechanical art.

The first modern bicycles appeared in the 19th century. The inventor, German-born Karl Drais (1785-1851) created a wooden prototype called a draisine in 1817. In France, blacksmiths made metal versions of the draisine with a front wheel up to 60 inches (152.4 cm) in diameter. They were known as boneshakers because of their harsh ride.

In the 1860s, James Starley of Coventry improved the design of the French bicycle with the use of tangent spokes and a larger front wheel. This improved the ride and allowed for faster speeds. During this time the bicycle became popular in America, and a large number of small manufacturers started operations to meet demand. Inventors experimented with different methods of transmitting power from the rider’s legs to the bicycle, but none could match the efficiency and cost of the chain drive.

Inventors also worked to improve the comfort of bicycles by adding ball bearings and a solid rubber tire. Those improvements, combined with the chain drive, led to the development of the modern bicycle as we know it today.

In recent decades, the popularity of bicycles has surged in many countries, especially in developing nations. This has been largely due to their effectiveness as a means of both transportation and recreation. A bicycle can travel much farther than a human can walk or run in the same amount of time, and it requires less energy to operate than a motor vehicle. In addition, a bicycle provides an excellent form of exercise, which strengthens muscles and increases cardiovascular fitness.

If a news story mentions a bicycle, it is usually in the context of a negative event or act. For example, if a person is caught dropping litter or stealing a bike, the reporter will probably make sure to include a picture of the offending bicycle in the article. This is done to imply that the bicycle was somehow responsible for the crime.

A bicycle is the most popular mode of mechanized transport in the world. In China, the country’s largest manufacturer of bicycles is called Flying Pigeon, and a bicycle in the home is considered an indicator of prosperity. Deng Xiaoping, the Chinese leader who launched economic reforms in the 1970s, once claimed that a bicycle in every household is one of the keys to economic success. However, there is a downside to bicycles: they are not environmentally friendly and can lead to health problems such as obesity and muscle injuries.

GOES-T Launched to Earth’s Geostationary Orbit


GOES, or Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, are NOAA spacecraft that continuously provide imagery and data on atmospheric conditions and solar activity (space weather). They aid in search and rescue operations and help forecasters predict the development of severe localized weather events such as storms, hurricanes, tornadoes and fog.

Located in geostationary orbit 35,790 km (22,240 mi) above Earth, GOES provides continuous, near real-time observations of the entire continental United States and adjacent oceans. These observations are a vital part of the nation’s weather, ocean and climate system, providing a unique view of the dynamic weather that affects all areas of our lives.

The GOES series of satellites, built by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, include the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), the Magnetometer, the Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS) and the Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS). All are controlled from the Satellite Operations Control Center in Suitland, Maryland.

Since 1975, the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have provided continuous imagery and data on atmospheric conditions and solar activity. These observations have contributed to more accurate and timely weather forecasts, aided in the search and rescue of people in distress, and improved our understanding of long-term climate conditions.

GOES-13, formerly called the GEOS-5 satellite, was lost in a space debris collision in 2006 and is no longer operational. GOES-15, formerly known as GEOS-6, was made operational in 2007. GOES-16 and GOES-17 are currently operating in a full-time capacity.

The launch of GOES-18 is scheduled for April 29, 2020. The satellite will be positioned over the CONUS and is expected to reach its operational declaration in early 2021. Until then, ABI data files will be available with the caveat GOES-18 Preliminary, Non-Operational Data.

The GOES-T launch will mark the third time ULA has delivered a GOES satellite to orbit. The Atlas and Delta launch vehicles, which inherited the heritage of NASA’s original GOES satellites when ULA was formed 15 years ago, have launched every GOES satellite ever launched.

The Go-Go’s were a girl band that was a major influence on the punk rock movement. It was a style of music that rejected corporate radio and the Svengalis who tried to mold it. The Go-Go’s did it their own way, which was a big part of why their songs spoke to so many young people. We’re thrilled that the GOES-T mission will be powered by the Atlas V and Delta IV, our heritage launch vehicles. Those rockets have a long record of success and continue to demonstrate their value in the challenging environment of commercial satellite launches. We look forward to the opportunity to work with the GOES-T team and its partners to deliver this critically important new technology to our customers.