An Introduction to Ethics by Martin L. Konner

In most contexts, the word good means the course which should be preferred whenever confronted with a decision between equally available alternatives. Good is usually understood to be the polar opposite of bad, and is often of central interest in the field of ethics, religion, philosophy and morality. The philosophy of value, used as an analytical tool by social scientists, makes good and bad refer to the degree to which alternative course of action would tend to promote human flourishing. The notion of value is closely linked to utilitarianism, the view that acts must be selected that will promote the greatest good of humanity.


According to some classical philosophers, virtue consists in the ability to act in a morally appropriate way. Descartes claims that it is man’s sense of right and wrong that directs him to choose what is right and to avoid what is wrong. According to others, virtue is an abstract quality of the soul or a supernatural, non-personal entity that is independent of will and emotion. According to both philosophers, virtue is the fundamental principle on which universal morals is founded. The leading moral theories of the day, including utilitarianism, entail utilitarian ethics, which denies that one can base moral evaluations on anything other than an appraisal of the good.

Aristotle’s ideas concerning virtue shed light on morality. According to Aristotle, virtue is the standard of the common good and the aim of virtue is to lead a life that is compatible with others. Aristotle claims that a life well lived consists of three elements: a norm of right action, a sense of honor and a respect for the life of others. A person may flourish individually, but his life as a social animal will fail if he does not have a social heart and considerate manners. In order to flourish as a community and contribute to its common good, it is necessary to cultivate virtues such as justice, generosity, temperance, and fortitude.

There are various theories concerning the relation of ethics and morality. Some theists insist that ethics and morality are independent of religion and any belief in God. Others, such as some modern Continental theologists, see good and evil not as things created by God, but as personal attributes that we acquire through motivation and willpower. According to such thinkers, goodness and evil are subjective aspects of human psychology that can be changed through personal change and improvement. It is a belief, according to some, that man can be forced to act badly, but he cannot be forced to see good and evil in any context. This latter view, however, is not a minority view but rather a mainstream opinion.

According to a variation of the consequentialist view, a society is said to have a “correct” ethical code if and only if it conforms to the natural moral truths. According to this view, we have a “natural” or “right” ethical code, which is superior to all others because it is morally right, and that those who do not adhere to this code will suffer by means of punishment meted out by a society that is bound by its moral code. In this way, ethics are understood not as something imposed from above by a religious cult, but as something that one develops through individual effort. Those who hold to the traditional moral theories believe that a moral code is superior to anything else because it is what was discovered through history, and that the moral codes we observe today are based on these original ideas.

According to Rawls, a morality is not something that can be imposed from above, but is something that can be developed by a person himself through his own efforts, through knowledge and his personal values and tastes. He says that the most important moral truth is that “good” and ” Evil exist as choices dependent on the choices people make.” This view of ethics contrasts sharply with the traditional atheistic approach that treats ethics as something “deeply mysterious” beyond understanding. According to Rawls, a good morality is nothing more than a standard that a person adopt for himself. A person who believes that killing is morally wrong may adopt a standard of non-killing, though he may not refrain from harming others, just as he may refrain from stealing, lying, or abusing other people.

Early Designs of Bicycles

A bicycle, also known as a bicycle or pedal cycle, is an adult-designed, human powered, single-wheel vehicle, with two pedals attached to a fixed frame, one beneath the other. A bicycle rider is commonly known as a cyclist, or bicycle rider. A person who makes frequent bicycle trips on smooth paved trails usually falls into this category.


The bicycle is a light weight machine that was first created in China and ridden by Chinese emperors centuries ago. In Europe, the bicycle reached popularity during the middle ages and Renaissance, when wealthy people and royalty were the biggest fans of these two-wheeled machines. The bicycle is often referred to as a bicycle for no reason other than its simple design. The seat and back wheel are situated in the same place as the pedals.

Louis Lallement and Bertrand de Lalsendorf were the first true bicycle designers. Lallement was working as a surveyor when he took a trip to England in the 16th century and fell in love with the country’s countryside. He set out on a personal bicycle journey across Europe, visiting Milan, Spain, and then traveling on to Paris. While there, he developed the humble frame that we know of today as a bicycle.

The first bicycles that Lallement designed were made for his friends, and not for profit. He found that most bicycles in Europe were fitted with spoked tires, rather than the more popular pneumatic tires that were used elsewhere. Although pneumatic tires are quite durable, they wear out much more quickly, and this was a factor that prevented the mass production of bicycles that we know today. Lallement also tried designing a bicycle that had three wheels, but this was also unsuccessful.

Lallement also developed a concept for a two-wheeled bicycle that was very similar to the modern day bicycle. The legs on this type of bicycle were much longer than those on most bicycles, and were curved in the middle. These bicycles called these “looped bicycles” and are still popular in certain areas of Europe. The basic design concept of the two-wheeled bicycle is the same as the one that we know today. Bicycle enthusiasts prefer this design for its stability and handling. This type of bicycle can be seen being ridden by some famous bicycle riders of the past, such as Samuel Taylor Clark and Thomas Edison.

Louis Lallement was also responsible for developing the nomegras bicycle, which was essentially a new design for bicycle enthusiasts. The nomegras bicycle was designed in the shape of a traditional family bicycle, but it was equipped with a front wheel that was propelled independently. This allowed the rider to climb hills at a normal speed, rather than pedal frantically as he might do with a normal bicycle. Although this type of bicycle has not been around as long as the original nomegras bicycles, it remains a favorite among younger bicycle enthusiasts. According to theists, the nomegras bicycle was meant to complement and improve upon the already available two-wheel bicycles.