GOES stands for “Global Operational Environmental Satellite”. GOES operates in geostationary orbit, which means it is always at one spot above the Earth. These satellites collect weather data and monitor atmospheric triggers of severe weather conditions. This data helps scientists predict weather and climate changes. It also aids in the monitoring of natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes. However, GOES is not as widely used as other satellites.
GOES consists of four primary payload instruments. The Imager and the Sounder sense infrared and visible solar energy, respectively. The Sounder provides data on surface and cloud top temperatures, ozone distribution, and vertical temperature profiles. It is a crucial tool for global climate and atmospheric research. The instruments on GOES are essential to the mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Department of Defense, and the research community.
The visible light from GOES satellites is reflected off clouds, which helps meteorologists identify the types of clouds. Meteorologists can use this information to track cloud movement and provide early warnings of severe weather. It also shows portions of Earth that are not cloud-covered. Light-colored sand, snow, and ice reflect most of the light. As a result, GOES provides accurate weather forecasts. However, it only has useful data in daylight hours.
The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is the primary instrument on the GOES series. It is used in many different applications, such as hurricane and weather monitoring. It can also help identify regions prone to turbulence. As a result, the GOES satellites can help forecast severe weather events and minimize the impact they cause on the environment. These satellites can help reduce the risk of aircraft encountering ash plumes and other natural hazards.
The GOES satellites are owned by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) oversees the design and launch of the satellites. Once they reach their geostationary orbit, GOES satellites continue to collect and distribute meteorological data. The data can be accessed using the SPEDAS software. The GOES satellites also provide detailed information about Earth’s surface temperatures, moisture, and other climate conditions.
GOES satellites orbit the Earth at geostationary and geosynchronous orbits, which are both polar and earth-synchronous. The GOES satellites collect weather information every 30 seconds in one hemisphere. The fleet consists of 14 satellites, from TIROS-1 in 1960 to NOAA-19 in February 2009.
GOES satellites are named after the letters that they carry before they are launched. The GOES-A series began operations in 1971 and was renamed GOES-I once it reached orbit. GOES-2 and GOES-3 followed in 1978. GOES-1 through GOES-3 were almost identical in design to the SMS satellites. They were spin-stabilized and carried instruments such as SEM and DCS.
GOES-16 has been named after BILL and DANNY. They formed in the last week of May and are now operational. GOES-17 will replace GOES-15. GOES-16 can provide extraordinary detail of weather on Earth and help predict tornado and hurricane warnings. GOES-16 will be operational in 2022. These satellites also help rescuers in disasters. They can keep rescue crews and emergency response workers safe and save countless lives.