GOES, or the Global Orbiting System, is a fleet of fourteen satellites that operate in geostationary orbit, directly over the equator. GOES reaches the equator every 30 seconds and gathers information about weather conditions in each hemisphere. The GOES mission began with the launch of TIROS-1 in 1960 and ended with the launch of NOAA-19 in February 2009. The GOES satellites are also used by the National Weather Service to track incoming hurricanes and other storms, as well as for monitoring the atmosphere, ocean temperature, and cloud cover.
GOES instruments have a set schedule for scanning the Earth, with GOES East and GOES West having regular time slots. GOES East covers the United States, as well as the adjacent oceans. GOES West provides an improved view of the U.S., including Alaska. GOES West monitors the Pacific Ocean. While GOES East is useful for monitoring the United States, GOES West provides information on the atmosphere and climate around the world.
GOES-R satellites are equipped with a new sensor for detecting and predicting hazard weather conditions. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) provides multispectral imaging. GOES-R is also equipped with a Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) instrument to detect lightning buildup in clouds and forecast storm severity and potential tornadoes. GOES satellites provide critical information to the national weather service, NASA, and the International Space Station.
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been a crucial part of U.S. weather monitoring since 1974. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which is in charge of their procurement, manufacture, and operation, is the official provider of GOES space and terrestrial weather data. Users of GOES data may download them using SPEDAS software. So, GOES is vital for weather forecasting. The information provided by GOES helps improve forecasts.
GOES satellites collect information about the Earth and its atmosphere from the Sun. They also provide data about the near-Earth solar-terrestrial electromagnetic environment. The primary payload instruments on GOES are the Imager and the Sounder. Imager detects reflected solar energy and infrared light. Sounder provides data on the surface and cloud top temperatures as well as ozone distribution. If you’re a weather forecaster, GOES images will give you an early warning about severe weather conditions.
GOES-16 is scheduled to launch on an Atlas V 541 expendable launch vehicle on November 26. The Atlas V rocket will launch the spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit in two stages. The launch is managed by NASA’s Launch Services Program. The mission’s main mission is to provide weather forecasts, which may be critical for emergency response crews. The GOES satellites help prevent disasters by monitoring and predicting hazardous weather conditions. They can save lives and keep emergency responders safe.
After GOES-3, the US launched GOES-A, GOES-4, and GOES-7. GOES-G and GOES-4 were similar to their predecessors, but each had a unique feature. VISSR allowed the measurement of temperature and moisture. These features led to more accurate weather predictions. However, GOES-G was lost in a lightning strike. GOES-G was designed to replace them.